## Why is BWT useful for compression?

BWT is useful because it converts the data into a format that is generally more compressible by run length encoders and statistical encoders with order greater than 0.

## Why is Burrows Wheeler transform useful for compression?

This is useful for compression, since it tends to be easy to compress a string that has runs of repeated characters by techniques such as move-to-front transform and run-length encoding.

**What is the time complexity of the algorithm from the lectures to build the inverse Burrows Wheeler transform of a string SS of length LL?**

C. Logn) time complexity, due to O(n) time for strings comparisons in O(nLogn) sorting algorithm.

### What is positional Burrows Wheeler Transform?

Durbin’s positional Burrows–Wheeler transform (PBWT) (Durbin, 2014) is a scalable foundational data structure for modeling population haplotype sequences. It offers efficient algorithms for matching haplotypes that approach theoretically optimal complexity.

### How does an FM Index work?

An FM-index is created by first taking the Burrows–Wheeler transform (BWT) of the input text. For example, the BWT of the string T = “abracadabra$” is “ard$rcaaaabb”, and here it is represented by the matrix M where each row is a rotation of the text, and the rows have been sorted lexicographically.

**What is run length encoding computer graphics?**

Run-length encoding (RLE) is a form of lossless data compression in which runs of data (sequences in which the same data value occurs in many consecutive data elements) are stored as a single data value and count, rather than as the original run.

## How do you create a suffix array?

A simple method to construct suffix array is to make an array of all suffixes and then sort the array.

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Applications of Suffix Array

- Pattern Searching.
- Finding the longest repeated substring.
- Finding the longest common substring.
- Finding the longest palindrome in a string.

## What is frequency deviation formula?

The formula for frequency deviation is given as: Δf = kfx(t) Maximum frequency deviation formula is: Δf = kf|x(t)|max. For tone modulation, frequency deviation is: Δf = kfAm.

**What is meant by modulation index frequency spectrum?**

Modulation index is a measure of extent of modulation done on a carrier signal. In Amplitude modulation, it is defined as the ratio of the amplitude of modulating signal to that of the carrier signal. m=AcAm.

### What is the disadvantage of run length encoding?

Drawbacks of run-length encoding

The original data isn’t instantly accessible, you must decode everything before you can access anything. You can’t tell how large the decoded data will be, which could be a problem if you have limited space to decompress the file in.

### How does run length limited encoding works?

Today’s most popular encoding scheme for hard disks, called Run Length Limited, packs up to twice the information on a given disk than MFM does and three times as much information as FM. In RLL encoding, the drive combines groups of bits into a unit to generate specific patterns of flux reversals.

**How does Ukkonen’s algorithm work?**

The algorithm begins with an implicit suffix tree containing the first character of the string. Then it steps through the string, adding successive characters until the tree is complete. This order addition of characters gives Ukkonen’s algorithm its “on-line” property.

## What is DC3 algorithm?

The algorithm DC3 sorts suffixes with starting positions in a difference cover sample modulo 3 and then uses these to sort all suffixes. In this section, we present a generalized algorithm DC that can use any difference cover D modulo v.

## Why is FM radio better than AM?

“FM, which stands for Frequency Modulation, has better sound quality due to higher bandwidth. Also, the way the audio is encoded for FM makes it less sensitive to interference from electrical activity from storms or electrical devices than AM.

**Why Armstrong method is preferred?**

The Armstrong method generates a double sideband suppressed carrier signal, phase shifts this signal, and then reinserts the carrier to produce a frequency modulated signal. Frequency modulation generates high quality audio and greatly reduces the amount of noise on the channel when compared with amplitude modulation.

### What is the difference between FSK and FM?

In the more general FM, the modulating waveform is typically a continuously variable audio signal, like speech or music. In FSK, the carrier frequency switches between discrete values, typically (but not necessarily) just two values.

### What is a run length encoding algorithm?

Run-length encoding (RLE) is a form of lossless compression. RLE is a simple method of compressing data by specifying the number of times a character or pixel colour repeats followed by the value of the character or pixel. The aim is to reduce the number of bits used to represent a set of data.

**Why is run length encoding better?**

Run Length Encoding is a lossless data compression algorithm. It compresses data by reducing repetitive, and consecutive data called runs. It does so by storing the number of these runs followed by the data.

## What is difference between MFM and RLL?

MFM stands for ‘modified frquency modulation’ while RLL is ‘run length limited’. using only 17 sectors per track instead of the optimum 26. 30MB out of a 20MB drive, but it won’t last too long.”

## Why is RLL encoding more efficient?

In RLL encoding, the drive combines groups of bits into a unit to generate specific patterns of flux reversals. Because the clock and data signals are combined in these patterns, the clock rate can be further increased while maintaining the same basic distance between the flux transitions on the storage medium.

**What is the time complexity of Ukkonen’s algorithm?**

At any given time, Ukkonen’s algorithm builds the suffix tree for the characters seen so far and so it has on-line property, allowing the algorithm to have an execution time of O(n). Ukkonen’s algorithm is divided into n phases (one phase for each character in the string with length n).

### What is suffix tree good for?

A suffix tree is a tree data structure typically used to store a list of strings. It is also referred to as the compressed version of a trie, as, unlike a trie, each unique suffix in the list is compressed together and represented by a single node or branch in a suffix tree.

### What is suffix tree used for?

**What is suffix array construction?**

Suffix array construction means simply sorting the set of all suffixes. • Using standard sorting or string sorting the time complexity is Ω(DP(T[0..n] )). • Another possibility is to first construct the suffix tree and then traverse it from left to right to collect the suffixes in lexicographical order.

## Is FM or AM better for music?

FM has better sound quality due to higher bandwidth. AM radio ranges from 535 to 1705 KHz (OR) Up to 1200 bits per second. FM radio ranges in a higher spectrum from 88 to 108 MHz. (OR) 1200 to 2400 bits per second.